The archeological Great wall of Gorgan is located in Golestan province. It is the longest archeological architecture in Iran and the second historical long wall in Asia which is 200 Km long, after the Great Wall of China (which is 6000 Km). It starts from the Caspian Sea in the North of Gomishan, passing along the Gorgan River around Golestan national park, reaches Kalaleh and it is built during Sasanian era.
In the history and travel logs, the Great wall of Gorgan is called Maar-e-Sorkh, the Red wall, Alexander-Dam, Anoushiravan-Dam, Firouz-Dam, the wall of defense, Qezel-Nilaq, Qezel-Alang and Alan (In Turkmen language).
The wall is 200 Km long, between 2 to 10 meters wide, and about 6 to 8 meters high. It is built by 40x40x10 cm red bricks that is held by lime or mortar and is designed by plasterwork somewhere.
The wall has some dependent constructions along, such as moat, connected castles, the ovens to make bricks, dam, a water canal and the surrounding castles in the South and the North of the wall, that all cause this wall to be more modern than the Great Wall of China in terms of defense.
The wall is located in the mountainous area and the plain in the Turkmen-Sahara. The Gorgan River as the longest river in Golestan province is located in the South of Gorgan wall from East to West that has the main role to build the wall.
Nowadays, some remains of the wall are visible from the East of Caspian Sea to the high mountains and valleys of the East Alborz (mountains) in Bili-Kouh (in the Golestan national park, small-Zaav Village, in the North-East of Kalaleh.) The wall is passing through Kalaleh, Gonbad-e-Kavous, Aq-Qala and Gomishan counties.
The wall is mentioned in the Shahname of Ferdowsi in details. Some other historical geographic documents say the wall goes to the city of Marv from the East. Some archeologists guess the wall can pass in the East of Iran (around Sarakhs) which requires archeological research.
An international research committee is working on an archeology, control, protection and management of the great wall of Gorgan territory to find out the secrets of this wonderful architecture of the Sasanian Dynasty.
The great wall of Gorgan as one of the most wonderful constructions before Islam is nominated to be internationally registered in UNESCO as one of the world heritage.
According to its damage, self-buried and the sediments, the tourists will have difficulties to visit the wall and there are three locations (research workshops) that are suitable and possible to visit the wall. The locations are all around Gokjeh village, 16 Km away from the North of Kalaleh. The locations are as follows:
- Qareh-Deyb research workshop, 9 Km away in the East of Gokjeh village, after Faraqi and Kasro Village, on the South corner of the road at E55,38.947 & N37,31.794 and about 250 meters above the sea level.
- Castle No. 2 research workshop, about 2.5 Km in the west of Gokjeh village, passing a dirt-road at E55,31.292 & N37,30.057 and 220 m above the sea level.
- Sarisou research workshop: the Sarisou River meets the wall, about 1 Km away in the west of castle No. 2 research workshop at E55,30.834 & N37,30.091 and about 140 meters above the sea level.
It is recommended to visit this unique tourist attraction on your trip to Golestan province.