The migration of the tribes in Iran is as old as the history. Iranians were the first group of the people who migrated and came to the plateau of Iran two thousand years B.C. These Iranian groups were the founder of Maad and Achaemenian dynasties. Part groups who founded Partian dynasty were emigrants and from Iranian groups too.
Ebn-e-Khaldoon, the Islamic sociologist of the 8th century Hegira, classifies the society into two groups of citizens and Bedouins. He believes that migrants have been before citizenships that is a kind of adaptation with the environment. He believes the migration of human socials is older than citizenship.
Tribe means the families consist of the people who are organized and are independent under the control of the Khaqan. Qashqai great tribe who are living in a vast area in Fars province, some parts of Boushehr, Kohkilouyeh-o-Boyerahmad, Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiari and Isfahan provinces are hospitable and warm people that some are still immigrants and some others have become citizens.
Qashqai tribe consists of five clans of Kashkouli, Darreh-Shouri, Shesh-Bloki, Farsi-Madan and Amleh. They are mostly Muslim and Shiite and they talk in Azari.
Qashqai tent is the “Siah Chaador” (Black tent), which is woven with the goat’s wool. The man Qashqai clothing style is a long dress up to the knees. They use a shawl or a cartridge ring as the belt. Dogoosh hat is the special clothing of Qashqai men. They use Giveh as their shoes which are woven with hand. The Qashqai ladies clothes consist of Borak or Kolaqcheh (Small hat), Lachak (scarf), Albaqi (Head band), Koynak (dress), Koljeh (coat) and Tonban (Skirt). “Koynak” the Qashqai ladies dress covers the legs below the knees and has two slits up the both sides and the sleeves are up to the wrists. Tonban is a long and full pleated skirt which covers the feet completely. All the Qashqai ladies clothes are floral and colorful.
Music is something special in Qashqai tribes. Three kinds of musicians are: Sarebanan with their flute, Changies with the instruments such as Korna, Naqareh and Sorna and Asheqs with the instruments such as Chagoor, Kamancheh and Sitar sing Qashqai songs.
At weddings and other ceremonies, the Choob-Bazi (stick playing) of men with Saz-o-Dohol (traditional music) and Dastmal-Bazi (Scarf dancing) of ladies with Heleh music has a wonderful harmony and beauty.
Qashqai woven handicrafts such as carpet, Gelim and Gabbeh are famous all over the world. They are not designed before weaving and just while weaving they are designed by the weavers, so each of them has a unique design and none of them are similar to the others. Kashkouli carpets are the most famous carpets in Qashqai tribe.
The powerful Qashqai tribe has had lots of ups and downs during the history from King Nader to Zandieh dynasty etc. During Qajarieh dynasty they had lots of fights against the British army in Boushehr. They protected Dr. Mosaddeq to get the right of Iranians from Britain to nationalize the oil industry.
The Qashqai tribe is so famous that even the Nissan car manufacturing Co. in Japan has named its small SUV model Qashqai.
It is advised to spend some days on your trip to Fars province seeing the Qashqai tribe life style and enjoying their culture, cuisine, dairy products and unique handicrafts. It is recommended to have a local tour guide on your trips to Iranian tribes.