The Susa archeological heritage area is registered in UNESCO as the world heritage. It is located in the South-West of Iran, West of Khouzestan province, 135 Km away in the North-West of Ahwaz, in Zagros Mountains and East of Shapour River. It coordinates E47,01 & N32,02 and 87 meters above the sea level. The distance from Tehran is 479 Km by air and 766 Km on the road.
This area of Susa, consists of some archeological hills and the Ardeshir palace which is located by the river. The discovered historical monuments consist of governmental, civil and luxurious constructions. The archeological hill of Susa consists of several archeological layers of civilizations during subsequent eras, from the 5th millennium B.C. to the 13th century A.D. This area is a unique evidence of Elamites, Persian and Parthian cultural traditions which are almost disappeared.
Susa is located on the main road from Ahwaz to Andimeshk and the main railroad from Tehran to Khorramshahr that goes through Susa too.
Susa is 6000 years old and the Susa plain as 8000 year old (Neolithic era). But according to some Paleolithic researches around Karkheh River some stone objects (from 20000 years to 40000 years ago) were excavated that is a sign of the older age of the Susa plain.
Susa is known as the oldest city of the world and it used to be the capital of Iran and has been civilized in different eras.
Other names for the Susa has been: Shoush, Sus, Susan, Souziana etc. Susa means good and fine.
At the beginning of the third millennium B.C. (About 4800 years ago) the first government was shaped there, known as Elamites. During Acaemenian dynasty, at the time of Darius the grate (521 B.C.), Susa has been chosen as the capital to the end of Acaemenian’s era. During Sasanids Dynasty, Susa was an important city up to Shahpour the second. 17 years after Hejira, Susa was invaded by the Arabs and during 4th and 5th centuries A.H. it was damaged and deserted. Most of the archeological objects from Susa are in the Louvre museum of France, Archeological museum of Iran, the museum of Susa and some other museums all around the world.
The Acropol hill is the oldest area of Susa which has kept some signs from the 4th millennium B.C. The foundation of this area has been built by mud-brick plate to be used as a temple. Building Susa started from Acropol and continued to Apadana and Shahi. The most important revolution in Acropol is the creation of chirography that happened 5200 years ago. These lines have been kept on mud-bricks. The city of Acropol has been damaged and renewed again at least 27 times.
The Apadana Palace (Darius palace) was built by Darius order on Elamites remains about 516 to 521 B.C. The walls were made of bricks and mud-bricks and the pillars were made by stones. The palace consists of various parts. The most beautiful arts have been the colorful bricks, Javidan Gard soldiers’ designs, winged lion and the Lotus. An inscription has been found in the palace which describes the technical and architectural aspects of this huge monument by Darius the great. The palace has 72 pillars and terraces that are 22 meters high.
The Susa museum is one of the richest museums of Iran that shows the objects from Paleolithic era to the recent Islamic centuries.
Other attractions of the Susa are Susa castle, Shahi-city, Sanatgaran-city, Shavour palace (Ardeshir the second palace), Prophet Daniel tomb, Haft-Tappeh museum, Choqazanbil, buildings number 1, 2, Debal-Khazaee tomb, Fath-ol-Mobin memorial and the complexe of the tombs.
Dez restricted area, Karkheh restricted area, Baamdej pond and Haft-Tappeh area are the natural attractions of Susa.
It is advised to visit this archeological complex and other attractions of Susa, on your trip to the South-west of Iran.